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    4 out of 4 members liked this post. Yes Reputation No

    Looks like you N54 guys will soon have an upgraded fuel system kit!

    Look like they've got A really badass kit coming out for the N54 should help anyone trying to up the boost without meth but specially those on upgraded turbos + meth. This will be huge for N54 numbers!


    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by shiv@vishnu Click here to enlarge
    Hi guys,
    For quite some time now, we’ve been quietly determining the limitations and weaknesses of the n54’s fuel system. Since it’s very different from the conventional fuel systems found in other cars, there was a lot to test and even more to learn. And much of it was surprising! Looking at things from a tuning perspective, the need to evaluate the limitations of the factory fuel system were even more of a priority considering that even the mildest of tunes results in 60hp gains with no associated hardware/component changes.

    Understanding BMW’s Direct Injection Fuel System

    Anyone familiar with conventional fuel injection systems will find some comfort in knowing that our BMW fuel system is actually quite traditional. At least the first half of it is. It consists of 6 components that play key roles:

    Low Pressure Fuel Pump
    Low Pressure Fuel Pump Controller
    Fuel Pressure Regulator
    Fuel Pressure Sensor
    High Pressure Fuel Pump
    Fuel Injectors

    Click here to enlarge

    Click here to enlarge

    Low Pressure Fuel Pump (LPFP)
    Click here to enlarge

    As with other conventional fuel injected applications, this assembly sits submerged in the fuel tank. It is accessible through an airtight lid which is located under the rear passenger seat cushion. The main function of this device is to pump fuel from the fuel tank, under the car, and to the High Pressure fuel pump which is then used to pressurize the fuel rail which distributes fuel to the fuel injections. But there’s a bit more going on behind the scenes. First, the pump sits in a bucket. And this bucket is spring loaded to sit firmly pressed against the bottom of the tank. This bucket performs the roll of ensuring that the fuel pump’s pick-up stays submerged in fuel. Even when the fuel level is low or even during hard cornering where fuel sloshes to the side of the tank. In fact, even when the fuel tank is nearly empty, you will find that the bucket is often completely full. Without this function, the fuel pump would suck in air bubbles which can be stressful for pump internals and even cause engine running issues such as misfire.

    
Those familiar with more motorsport focused fuel systems know that such system often employ two (or more) fuel pumps. One main pump and one (or more) smaller “lifter” or “transfer” pump(s) which simply move fuel from the corners of the fuel tank into the bucket houses the main pump. Miraculously, the low pressure fuel pump assembly in our BMW accomplishes all these important functions with just 1 pump. This eliminates the need for additional wiring, heavier duty electronics, more plumbing and more pump hardware. This is cleverly accomplished by a small secondary pressure port in the low pressure fuel pump. This secondary port is located at the bottom of the bump body. It’s internally restricted so only a relatively small amount of fuel is pushed out of it. This pressurized stream of fuel is routed through a fancy-looking plastic fitting which is mounted at the bottom of the bucket, right over a one-way flapper door. In this fancy fitting is a Venturi jet (Suction jet pump in BMW speak) which increases the velocity of the fuel (by gradually reducing its diameter). Through the wonderful world of physics, this higher velocity stream of fuel is used to create a localized low pressure zone which is used to pull fuel upwards (against gravity) through the one way flapper door and into the bucket. Without this mechanically generated low pressure zone, the fuel level in the buck would be equal to the fuel level of the fuel tank which would be unfortunate when the fuel level of the tank is low.

    [U2B]nWF2SJSnVok[/U2B]

    With these systems in action, the level in the bucket is high enough to keep the fuel pump pick-up fully submerged. Once the fuel is pushed out of the bucket by the low pressure fuel pump, it is routed towards the engine bay. But not before it passes through the fuel pressure regulator.

    Fuel Pressure Regulator (FPR)

    This device is located on the other side of the tank, under the driver’s side rear seat cushion. It’s job is to ensures that the entire low pressure fuel system (from the outlet of the low pressure pump to the inlet of the high pressure fuel pump is pressure regulated to a steady 5 bar (72psi) of pressure. The excess fuel that is bypassed by the regulator is then sent back to the other side of the fuel tank and dumped back to where it is needed most-- back into the bucket. But during its return trip it is pushed through another Venturi jet fitting, this time dragging fuel from the other side of the saddlebag-shaped, over the hump in them middle, and back into the fuel pump bucket. Which means that not only does the bucket stay filled, its side of the fuel tank is always at a higher level than the other side.

    Low Pressure Fuel Pump Controller (EKP)
    Click here to enlarge

    As you would expect, turning on the fuel pump in the BMW is a bit more complicated than using a simple $5 fuel pump relay to activate when the engine is running. Instead of turning the pump on or off, the Low Pressure Fuel Pump Controller (EKP in BMW-speak) constantly changes how hard it is driving the pump based upon engine demands. It does this by constantly adjusting the pump voltage between 3 and 11 volts. The higher the voltage, the faster the turbine in the fuel pump spins and the more fuel volume it pumps.

    Traditionally, such fuel pumps only had one speed which was ON (full voltage). Which means that it was always pumping at full speed. Which meant that the fuel pressure regulator played a bigger role in regulating fuel system pressure. This mean that during conditions of low fuel demands (ie, low load, cruise, idle, etc,.), most of the fuel that was pumped by the fuel pump was bypassed by the FPR and routed back to the fuel tank. The downside of this is that you had a bunch of extra fuel flowing needlessly. Not only does this heat up the fuel, it also results in excessive vaporization which contributes to increased fuel tank emissions. So over time, most manufactures implemented a two stage fuel pump control circuit. So that at periods of low fuel demand, the pump would be driven at just 5-6v. And then at a full 11-14v when the engine is under load. Of course, leave it to BMW to take this one big step further by constantly varying the fuel pump voltage (by PWM control) based upon feedback it gets from the DME which is constantly monitoring the fuel pressure through a fuel pressure sensor mounted at the end of the low pressure fuel system (just upstream of the HPFP). In fact, the EKP modules acts much like a conventional boost control system. But instead of PWM controlling a boost control solenoid based upon boost pressure, it PWM controls the pump based upon fuel pressure. Clever! Which means that the pump only flows close to what the engine needs, reducing the amount of fuel that is returned to the fuel tank by the FPR.

    High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP)
    Click here to enlarge

    The most criticized component in our car. For something so finicky, it’s role is actually very straight-forward: To accept the fuel that is being fed to it’s inlet (regulated to 72psi) and to “step it up” to 1000-4000psi at its outlet in the fuel rail. As you would expect, this takes quite a bit of power to do this (probably a few HP). Which is why the HPFP is driven directly off of the engine and not fully powered by an electrical control system. Unlike the low pressure fuel pump, this pump's speed cannot be controlled based upon demand as it’s always spinning at a fixed ratio with engine RPM. Which means that another device must be used to regulate fuel rail pressure. And this is where the fuel supply control valve comes into play. Unlike an FPR which regulates fuel system pressure by controlling the rate of fuel return, the supply control valve regulates fuel rail pressure by controlling the amount of fuel going into the HPFP inlet. This valve is controlled by the DME which monitors fuel pressure through a sensor mounted in the fuel rail. The DME establishes the fuel pressure target from internal calculations based upon calculated cylinder pressure, engine speed, etc. All things equal, the higher the cylinder pressure, the higher the fuel rail pressure. This direct relationship ensures that the Fuel Injector “squirts” travels far enough into the combustion chamber during the compression stroke to initiate the desired optimal burn. The more boost pressure, the higher the cylinder pressures. The higher the cylinder pressures, the higher the desired fuel rail pressures. Pretty simple. Mapped properly, this results in better fuel economy, lower emissions and more engine torque.

    More Thoughts
    So all this begs a few question which we hope to answer in depth in Part 2 of this tech series: What is up with all these failed HPFPs? Are they really that poorly designed/built? Or are other issues contributing to their failure? Or are some of these HPFP failures are being misdiagnosed?

    BMW has had many attempted fixes for this ongoing problem. First, they just replaced HPFP units. After this didn’t address the problem, they redesigned the pump. A few times. Then, they reprogrammed the DME so that it would “prime” the low pressure fuel pump system to ensure full pressure (72psi) at the HPFP inlet (before it started to spin) which suggests that they believed that pump cavitation may have been a potential cause of failure/wear.


    Next in Part 2.... Bench testing results are in... Stock vs UPGRADED Fuel System Show Down

    Click here to enlarge

  2. #2
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    Yeah this great news ! Will have a kit heading my way very soon :-)
    07 335i AT - MOTIV 750 - MHD BMS E85 - BMS PI - JB4G5 - Okada Coils - NGK 5992 Plugs - Helix IC - Stett CP - Custom midpipes with 100 HJS Cats - Bastuck Quad - PSS10 - QUAIFE LSD - BMS OCC - Forge DVs - AR OC - ALCON BBK - M3 Chassi - Dinan CP - Velocity M rear Toe arms - Advan RZ-DF - LUX H8 - Level 10 AT upgrade
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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by enrita Click here to enlarge
    Yeah this great news ! Will have a kit heading my way very soon :-)
    That's awesome! I gotta talk them into working their procede piggy into my N63 as this and their new meth kit is exactly the type of innovation and forward progress I need to team up with.

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    Looks promising. Hopefully this will pan out
    Click here to enlarge

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    as long as it works.. im sure ill be the last on the list to recieve on of these Click here to enlarge

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by LostMarine Click here to enlarge
    as long as it works.. im sure ill be the last on the list to recieve on of these Click here to enlarge
    truth Click here to enlarge

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by LostMarine Click here to enlarge
    as long as it WORKS.. im sure ill be the last on the list to recieve on of these Click here to enlarge
    Key word^

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by alpinedevil335 Click here to enlarge
    Key word^
    yes.

    also knowing that "tuners" reputation. I am interested in seeing if they try to make its use only with said tune. anything can be reverse engineered, so I wonder if they are truely going to open it up to ALL enthusiasts, or try to keep a leash on it. I mean, currently, if I had to, I could always A. wait for BMS to have the capability to do whatever is required to run it, B.throw on the SB2 and call up some people for special application tuning.

    Of course, businesses need to make money, but ther strategy is going to be a huge factor in this. market it at a price and sell to everyone and rake in the $$, or keep it "propietary" and hope to get some converts, which would be good for them short term, but ultimatley hurt them in the long run, as competiton will always drive it down..

    and of course, as you said, This is all conjecture as it needs to WORK PROPERLY at first.. annd im not going to be a test mule for something like that, others can take the lead on this. and I want customer provided feedback, since we all know how "working" and actually working differ from some tuners perspectives..

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    This is great news! Hopefully now, we'll be able to see how far this engine can be pushed before upgrading internals.

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by LostMarine Click here to enlarge
    yes.

    also knowing that "tuners" reputation. I am interested in seeing if they try to make its use only with said tune. anything can be reverse engineered, so I wonder if they are truely going to open it up to ALL enthusiasts, or try to keep a leash on it. I mean, currently, if I had to, I could always A. wait for BMS to have the capability to do whatever is required to run it, B.throw on the SB2 and call up some people for special application tuning.

    Of course, businesses need to make money, but ther strategy is going to be a huge factor in this. market it at a price and sell to everyone and rake in the $$, or keep it "propietary" and hope to get some converts, which would be good for them short term, but ultimatley hurt them in the long run, as competiton will always drive it down..

    and of course, as you said, This is all conjecture as it needs to WORK PROPERLY at first.. annd im not going to be a test mule for something like that, others can take the lead on this. and I want customer provided feedback, since we all know how "working" and actually working differ from some tuners perspectives..
    Wouldn't surprise me one bit if they do lock it down so that it only works with Vishnu tunes. That's just how they have done business in the past. This would also sway people to switch over to their tune.
    Truthful customer feedback will also be an issue.

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    like i said, only work for a few weeks, then someone somewhere will crack it and we will be on our way..

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    At least Shiv is trying to solve a (the) major issue with N54 tuning, doesn't matter if he wants a fortune for the bits and if it is locked to the procede, everyone would benefit from this over time.

    If he's smart he would (for once) try to be the good guy and try to sell this at a resonable price, but I think he will go for a pricy V5 locked solution to start with.

    And honestly I would probably do the same in his place Click here to enlarge

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    right, its to be expected. just waiting to see what he actually does. i dont knock him for that.. just saying. wouldnt it be much more $$ if he releases to everyone at 1 price and endgame rather than to try and switch some?

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    Well sales people usually goes for maximizing profit quarter by quarter, and since I'm from europe I blame it on the US culture Click here to enlarge

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    Sorry I haven't been keeping up with my own thread but I've been driving all day. I honestly think that Vishnu is revealing too much already. I run my own company and if that was me I'd just announce an upgrade for the N54 fuel system and offer a discount for the first 10 that would buy it in exchange for dyno's, track times, feedback etc. He shouldn't just be giving his work away like that. You all are right this seems to be the pattern for most innovative companies: they come up with a new product or method, the competition in a scramble begins to pick apart said innovation all the while figuring out how the heck it works and trying to emulate it, finally competition successfully copies it and effusively praises the advancement. Lol Shiv needs to keep as much as he can under wraps and tie it as much as he can to Vishnu and charge a fair but very profitable price. With Cobb coming out with the tuner version soon it will be all these piggybacks can do to stay competitive. These types of innovations will ensure that.

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    It'll take me a long time to get to the point where I need something like this.

    I'm only just starting to get bored with my stock car -- so I'm adding a tune. Hopefully that'll keep me entertained for at least another year .. before I start looking at bolt-on mods! Click here to enlarge
    ~

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    Read the first post.. Nothing new there that wasn't already posted on N54tech a few months ago. If you're making > 440rw you likely need a new in tank pump. The next step is to drop in a $100 Walbro pump, setup the JB4 to trick the DME in to thinking it still has the stock pump, and test for the pressure drop we're seeing at higher power levels.

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Jimefam Click here to enlarge
    Sorry I haven't been keeping up with my own thread but I've been driving all day. I honestly think that Vishnu is revealing too much already. I run my own company and if that was me I'd just announce an upgrade for the N54 fuel system and offer a discount for the first 10 that would buy it in exchange for dyno's, track times, feedback etc. He shouldn't just be giving his work away like that. You all are right this seems to be the pattern for most innovative companies: they come up with a new product or method, the competition in a scramble begins to pick apart said innovation all the while figuring out how the heck it works and trying to emulate it, finally competition successfully copies it and effusively praises the advancement. Lol Shiv needs to keep as much as he can under wraps and tie it as much as he can to Vishnu and charge a fair but very profitable price. With Cobb coming out with the tuner version soon it will be all these piggybacks can do to stay competitive. These types of innovations will ensure that.
    The discussion was started on the in tank pump late Jan of this year. Although it's been suspected as a weak link long before then. I hope they release a reasonably priced in tank fuel pump upgrade for the large turbo guys. It will save us from having to spend the time to do the same. Click here to enlarge

    http://www.n54tech.com/forums/showthread.php?t=11264

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Terry@BMS Click here to enlarge
    Read the first post.. Nothing new there that wasn't already posted on N54tech a few months ago. If you're making > 440rw you likely need a new in tank pump. The next step is to drop in a $100 Walbro pump, setup the JB4 to trick the DME in to thinking it still has the stock pump, and test for the pressure drop we're seeing at higher power levels.
    I disagree. It is one thing to say the lpfp is the limiting factor and an entirely different thing to actually go and do something about it. Case in point there may have been speculation before but what you describe as the next step appears to have been taken already and implemented in a workable solution. This is what excites me as someone looking to upgrade these type of motors is the people who go beyond the talking and make things happen. Don't take any of this as a shot against you or your company as not every post in here is about X tuner vs Y tuner. It's progress for a whole generation of engines and regardless of how you may feel personally about the source everyone should be happy to see the the BMW aftermarket progress.

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    Looks like he is going to be selling to all:


    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by shiv@vishnu Click here to enlarge
    It currently is Procede specific since we had to write dedicated code to control the fuel system electronics. But we will provide the information on how to get other tuning devices to work with it. No reason why everyone can't benefit from this.

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    lets see that it works first. there are about 5 bigger turbo guys running V5's that are willing to try it on Shivs word alone. so lets see what they do.

    Ive heard this song and dance for over a year now, from about 5 different angles and people all with different setups and backgrounds claiming to have a solution.. lets see it work first..


    ** Edit**

    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Jimefam Click here to enlarge
    Looks like he is going to be selling to all:
    If thats true, I will congratulate.

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Jimefam Click here to enlarge
    I disagree. It is one thing to say the lpfp is the limiting factor and an entirely different thing to actually go and do something about it. Case in point there may have been speculation before but what you describe as the next step appears to have been taken already and implemented in a workable solution. This is what excites me as someone looking to upgrade these type of motors is the people who go beyond the talking and make things happen. Don't take any of this as a shot against you or your company as not every post in here is about X tuner vs Y tuner. It's progress for a whole generation of engines and regardless of how you may feel personally about the source everyone should be happy to see the the BMW aftermarket progress.
    I believe I said I'm happy to see someone address it, be it RB or Vishnu. BMS isn't looking to be in the fuel pump business unless absolutely necessary. But it's also important to recognize who is a good candidate for a modification like this and who isn't. Based on my testing someone running meth can very safely run upwards of 450rw with the factory pump. At higher power levels the verdict is still out. My basic philosophy has always been there has to be a real tangible and observable benefit before replacing a factory part with all of its factory R&D with an aftermarket one.

    PS. Around 15 years ago I used to make a alternator voltage boosting device for LT1 motors. Which increased the voltage to the in tank pump and allowed another 20-30hp worth of fuel headroom. So I'm not a stranger to fuel systems and not opposed to improving them when needed.

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Terry@BMS Click here to enlarge
    I believe I said I'm happy to see someone address it, be it RB or Vishnu. BMS isn't looking to be in the fuel pump business unless absolutely necessary. But it's also important to recognize who is a good candidate for a modification like this and who isn't. Based on my testing someone running meth can very safely run upwards of 450rw with the factory pump. At higher power levels the verdict is still out. My basic philosophy has always been there has to be a real tangible and observable benefit before replacing a factory part with all of its factory R&D with an aftermarket one.

    PS. Around 15 years ago I used to make a alternator voltage boosting device for LT1 motors. Which increased the voltage to the in tank pump and allowed another 20-30hp worth of fuel headroom. So I'm not a stranger to fuel systems and not opposed to improving them when needed.
    I agree but wouldn't it be better not to have to run meth at such low power levels? I mean there are plenty of relatively high compression motors that get turbocharged and don't have to run meth to make such low power levels(370z for example) and wouldn't being able to up the boost further without having to resort to meth remove one more potential failure point for the motor? I would think it'd be safer to run this then risk running out of meth and having my engine pop as I saw two threads with N54 failures right? Besides those $100 walbros you'd "throw" into your hypothetical setup have been proven to be pretty reliable(I'm running two right now in my 240).

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    There are plenty of broken turbo zs around...

    The meth is needed primarily for its octane with the fueling being just a minor side benefit in the 440rw range as we stand now. More fueling capacity than you need isn't going to prevent detonation or provide any tangible benefit. But if designed properly it probably won't hurt either.

    I also understand the need to justify/sell such a product to a wider range of customers than just the 10 guys running turbo upgrades. Otherwise it won't be profitable.

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    Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Terry@BMS Click here to enlarge
    There are plenty of broken turbo zs around...

    The meth is needed primarily for its octane with the fueling being just a minor side benefit in the 440rw range as we stand now. More fueling capacity than you need isn't going to prevent detonation or provide any tangible benefit. But if designed properly it probably won't hurt either.

    I also understand the need to justify/sell such a product to a wider range of customers than just the 10 guys running turbo upgrades. Otherwise it won't be profitable.
    So just so I understand correctly, running richer afr's then currently possible at high boost won't help prevent detonation? Am I understanding you correctly? And there are many broken Z's alright but not at 440rw if they were running a good tune. For real life evidence see the msizzle VS nismo thread that has two blown Z's making more power on pump certainly this can be done on the N54 as it is on many motors. I do so love the Vishnu commentary though keep it coming.

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